Informational-Analytical Tables


The second section of this volume is made up of diagrams and several informational-analytical tables, giving a definite representation of the tendencies of the repression's development in the Odessa District, comparing various data about the people under repression, their age, birthplace, nationality, profession and so forth.

The diagram shows the number of arrests by year, and side-by-side with the absolute peak of the 1937-1938 years are noted the relative - 1920-1921, 1929-1933, 1940-1941 and 1944-1945 years.

Data presented in the first table is about the chronology of the repression for the years 1919-1984. The number of baseless arrests and repressive decisions adopted each year do not agree because in many cases the decision would not occur until the next year, and a few under investigation would be freed. In a separate column are capital punishment verdicts -- executions. According to the data at hand a sharp upsurge, a peak of terror fell in the years 1937-1938 in all three indices -- in the number of arrests (15542 people), the number of repressive sentences (12944 people), and the number of executions (8100 people). Many arrests also took place in the period of collectivization in the late twenties and early thirties (4193 people), in 1940-1941 on the eve of the Odessa's surrender (3069 people) and in 1944-1945 after its liberation (3897 people).

In the second table comparative data about the number of people under repression of various ages is listed. Also, as in the first table, the overall number of arrests exceeds the what is the indicated number of 33004 people since a few were arrested two, three, or even four times. For that reason a single person may figure in various age groups. Information about the number of executions is shown in a separate column. People of the most active age -- 30-40 years (18811 people) were subjected to the most intensive repression. (This sentence deleted in Book2: But there were "enemies of the people" among the youth as well as the elderly: Joseph Varshavskiy was only 15 years old, while Jacob Kuzmich Korchinskiy was already 80 years old when they were executed for anti-Soviet activities.)

The third table presents information about the birthplace of the people under repression. Basically this includes natives of Odessa city, the districts* of Cherson, Bessarabia, and Podolia, and also Odessa District* (19729 people). However, among those who were unlawfully arrested and put under repression in our area were natives of other places -- various regions of the Ukraine, the Russian Federation, Poland, Belorussia, Romania and other countries. (This sentence deleted in Book2: Natives of Bessarabia make up a very considerable group, arrested in massive numbers by the Odessa District* office of the Committee for Internal Affairs in 1940-1941 after the annexation of Bessarabia into the Soviet Union.)

*Note: In the above paragraph and elsewhere the Russian word for district is the old Tsarist word 'gubernia' when referring to Cherson, Bessarabia and Podolia, but when referring to Odessa it is the Soviet word 'oblast'.

During the tabulation of this table certain difficulties arose in connection with the multiple changes in the local regional boundaries, districts and countries, and also with the large range of age groups. For that reason people born in one village, but in different decades, might be attributed to different governments: for example, Russia - Romania - Moldova, or Russia - Poland, or Russia - Estonia, and so forth. In the future it is planned to name the birthplace of all people under repression as that place was named in the year that person was born, and to indicate the country in which it was located at that time. But in this table mainly the modern territorial delineation's were taken into account.

In the appendix to the third table are enumerated the subdivisions of the Odessa District and the former Ismail District which were indicated in the repressed people's bibliographic questionnaires in the column "birthplace." This list does not completely agree with the modern day subdivisions because of the frequent renaming and changing of the subdivisions' borders. For that reason in subsequent work, after the administrative and territorial data within various decades is made more precise, and the tables are put together on the basis of the up-to-date subdivision of the Odessa District, the numbers will change somewhat.

In the fourth table comparative data about the number of repressed men and women of various nationalities is presented. The largest nationality group is Ukrainian (13060 people), then Russian (6293 people), German (4624 people), Jewish (2733 people), and Moldavian (1870 people). In all, according to the data we now have, there are 61 nationalities represented amongst the repressed people of Odessa and Odessa District.

(This paragraph deleted in Book2: In the future the number of people of various nationalities might be made more accurate. This is in connection with the fact that several of those arrested preferred to conceal their nationality, to call themselves Russian or Ukrainian, and in connection with so-called "national" cases under investigation they could write down any nationality. For example, in cases about Ukrainian nationalists the investigator could make a Pole a Ukrainian, while in numerous "German cases" a Russian or Ukrainian could have at times been written down as German. But in the main a check of the cases confirms the correctness of the data.)

The fifth table is the most complicated and disputable. We tried to combine in it data about the sphere of occupation, profession, and work position of the repressed people in order to compare their social status and to determine the tendency of development or abatement of repressions against various social groups by decade.

The biggest group of repressed people in the Odessa area were among the peasantry -- both individual farmers and members of state and collective farms (10987 people).

Specialists were continually and intensively repressed -- including engineers, physicians, jurists, school teachers, instructors and students at colleges and universities, and so forth; and also cultural workers, scientists, and workers in the arts (3862 people).

Those repressed people whose jobs were connected with the sea -- sailors, workers with the Black Sea Maritime Fleet, the Odessa seaport, and other maritime fleets and ports -- were chosen for a separate group (662 people).

Professional workers -- and skilled laborers (metalworkers, mechanics, electricians, welders), and unskilled laborers were constantly subjected to repression (5574 people).

There were a large number of repressed people among servicemen of the Red (later the Soviet) Army and White Army -- both command staff personnel and rank and file soldiers (1918 people).

The unemployed, pensioners, housewives, and even prisoners already living within the Gulags did not escape the repression (3148 people).

Many sections of this table include a separate line for administrative workers, the so-called "command staff" -- leaders of businesses and institutions, directors of plants, factories, state farms, chairmen of collective farms, chief engineers, economists, accountants, and so forth (1218 people).

Party workers, workers in the government councils, executive committees, and management organs are shown in a separate section (1098 people).

In the future information, gathered here, might be put into several tables and will compare the spheres of activities, professions, jobs, and work locations of the repressed.

The last, sixth table -- is a summary. In it are presented different groups of people on a percentage basis to the overall number of repressed people included in the base data within "Odessa Martyrology" (33012 people).

Five of the worst periods for arrests were singled out -- the years 1937-1938, 1929-1933, 1944-1945, 1940-1941, and 1920-1921. They made up 83.3% of the arrests.

The highest form of punishment, execution, was the verdict for 9065 people (27.5%).

Our fellow residents -- from the city and district of Odessa made up 59.8%.

The vast majority of the repressed people were spread amongst Ukrainians, Russians, Germans, Jews, Moldavians, Poles, Bulgarians, and Greeks. In all 95%.

The main social groups were: peasants, workers, intelligentsia, salaried employees, administration, and military servicemen. In all 79.6%.

The information depicted in the tables is preliminary. There will be additions and corrections. But even from this early data it is evident that the bolshevist terror did not miss anyone. A totalitarian government locates "enemies of the people" everywhere, and the chief "enemy", or more exactly, the victim of this government turns out to be those same people.